A presentation by national chapter has been chosen for more clarity and to facilitate research or travellers’ journeys, even if they involve territories not under the same flag in the past, but nevertheless crossed by the same historical “drums’ tracks”.

Four main groups can be identified, covering all countries visited by the author:

  1. A “core” eastern region including modern-day Southern China and Northern Vietnam where bronze drums were undoubtedly created and influenced all the other areas on the verge of BCE and CE ages. (Heger I, II, IV types)
  2. A western region including Myanmar ex-Burma and Laos receiving the above types but creating a subsequent bronze drums family (Heger III) alive until now.
  3. An intermediary region composed of Cambodia and Thailand where early northern drums were adopted and their transit facilitated down to the southern archipelagos (before to be totally forgotten). Much later, the new Burmese/ Lao Heger III bronze drums were welcomed by their reigning monarchs until today.
  4. Southern Archipelagos so-called zone covering several maritime nations - Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and islands around. They received early Heger bronze drums from the north before to invent locally new Pejeng and Mokko.

ASEAN = Association of South East Asian Nations (Economy, culture, development, etc.)